Russian KGB

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The State Security Committee CCCP (abbr.: official. KGB, translation and definition. "Committee", "bodies") - the central union-governmental authority of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in the field of national security, which operated from 1954 to 1991. The main functions of the KGB were foreign intelligence, counterintelligence, operational-search activity, the protection of the state border of the USSR, the protection of the leaders of the CPSU and the Soviet Government, organization and government communications, as well as the fight against nationalism, dissent and anti-Soviet activities. Another task was to provide the KGB of the Central Committee of the CPSU (until May 16, 1991) and the higher organs of state power and administration of the USSR information affecting national security and defense of the country, the socio-economic situation in the Soviet Union and the issues of foreign policy and foreign economic activity of the Soviet state and the Communist Party. The system of the KGB were fourteen national committees of national security in the republics of the USSR and the local public security authorities in the autonomous republics, territories, regions, cities and districts of the individual, the military districts, formations and units of the army, navy and internal troops, transport, border troops, government communications troops, military intelligence agencies, educational institutions and research institutions, as well as so-called "first departments" of Soviet institutions, organizations and enterprises.

Over the years, the KGB had a different name and official status in the central government: Full name Abbreviation Title Years "The Committee of State Security of the USSR Council of Ministers' Office of the KGB with the rights of the Ministry of March 13, 1954 - July 5, 1978 "The Committee of State Security," the KGB State Committee July 5, 1978 - December 3, 1991 History of the Soviet secret police Education KGB The initiative highlight "operational KGB departments and divisions" of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR in the independent agency attributed the Interior Minister Sergei Kruglov, who Feb. 4, 1954 filed an official note to the corresponding proposal to the Central Committee of the Communist Party. Offers Kruglov were discussed at a meeting of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the CPSU February 8, 1954 and is fully approved, except for the fact that the proposal of the Minister of the name - "Committee for State Security Council of Ministers of the USSR" - was taken away "on business." A month later, the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet on March 13, 1954 was established the State Security Committee under the Council of Ministers of the USSR. The new committee includes isolated from the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR management services and departments concerned with the issue of national security. Chairman of the committee has been appointed former First Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs, Colonel-General I. Serov. It is noteworthy that the KGB was formed not as a central body of state administration, what were its predecessors - the MGB and the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR - but only in the status of Minister of the Government of the USSR.

According to some historians, the reason for lowering the status of the KGB in the hierarchy of government was to the top of the party and the Soviet state security organs to deprive the country of independence, entirely subordinate to their work unit of the Communist Party. However, the chairman of the KGB were appointed not by orders of the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, as was customary for heads of departments of the Government of the country, and the decrees of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, as was done for the ministers and chairmen of state committees. 1950 IA Serov, the first chairman of the KGB (1954-1958) Almost immediately after its formation, the KGB has undergone major structural reorganization and reduction in the number of employees in connection with the beginning after the death of IV Stalin's de-Stalinization process of society and the state. Declassified documents of the State Archive of the Russian Federation, it was reported that in 1950 the number of personnel of the KGB has been reduced by more than 50 percent compared to the year 1954. Was abolished more than 3,500 city and county vehicles, combined some of the operational and investigative units have been eliminated and combined into a single investigative aids investigation departments and offices in the operational units. Has been significantly simplified structure of the special departments of the KGB and the transport sector. In 1955, it was further reduced over 7,500 employees, while about 8,000 officers of the KGB were transferred to the status of civil servants. Soviet tanks in Budapest in October 1956 In 1956, the KGB actively participated in the suppression of the uprising in Hungary and the persecution of its members. KGB chairman IA Serov together with the Deputy Chief of Staff Malinin went, accompanied by the leaders of the Central Committee of the Communist Party in Budapest for the assessment of the current situation in Hungary.

During the "Whirlwind", a plan which has been developed by the Ministry of Defense of the USSR, the KGB was arrested Hungarian Defence Minister, Lieutenant-General Pal Maléter. This allowed neutralize the Hungarian military leadership and to ensure the success of Soviet artillery, tank and infantry units in the rapid suppression of the rebellion and restore the Soviet regime in Hungary, loyal to the Soviet Union. In the first days after the suppression of the rebellion, with the assistance of the KGB secret services in Hungary were arrested about 5000 Hungary - Hungarian party activists, military personnel and students - 846 of whom were sent to Soviet prisons. According to some estimates, about 350 of those arrested were later executed, including the Hungarian Prime Minister Imre Nagy. For participating in an operation to suppress the uprising, the chairman of the KGB Serov was awarded the Order of Kutuzov, 1st degree. It should be noted the active role in the suppression of the uprising in Hungary, the Soviet ambassador Yuri Andropov, the experience Andropov came in handy later when, as chairman of the KGB, he had to guide the actions of the Soviet secret police during "Operation Danube" in Czechoslovakia in 1968. After the transfer of IA Serov as head of the Main Intelligence Directorate, December 25, 1958 was appointed chairman of the KGB, the former head of the Department of the Central Committee of the CPSU party for the Union republics Shelepin, who held a series of fundamental changes in the apparatus of the KGB in order to simplify its structure and reducing the number of employees.

April 9, 1959, five years after the formation of the KGB, in high security mode approved the "Regulations on the State Security Committee of the Council of Ministers of the USSR," in which the Committee was assigned the status of national security as a department of the Government of the country with the rights of the ministry, as well as was established subordination KGB Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR government. KGB continued the practice of his predecessors - Office number 1 MGB on sabotage work abroad under the leadership of PA Sudoplatova and Office number 2 on the implementation of special missions in the Soviet Union under the leadership of Alexander Drozdov - in the area of ​​the so-called "active measures" , which refers to acts of individual terrorism in the country and abroad in respect of persons who qualified party bodies and the Soviet secret services as "the most active and most vicious enemies of the Soviet Union, the number of workers in the capitalist countries, especially dangerous foreign intelligence officers, heads of anti-Soviet emigre organizations and traitors homeland. " Conducting such transactions has been assigned to the First Chief Directorate of the KGB. So, in October 1959, a KGB agent Bohdan Stashinskomu was killed in Munich Ukrainian Nationalists leader Stepan Bandera. The same fate befell another leader of the OUN - L. Rebeta. 1960 In December 1961, on the initiative of the First Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU Khrushchev, Shelepin was transferred to party work as secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU. The KGB took VE Sevenfold, a former colleague Shelepina to work in the Central Committee of Komsomol. Sevenfold continued the policy of his predecessor in the restructuring of the KGB. In the Main Office of Homeland Security and Counterintelligence (2nd principal control) were infused 4th, 5th and 6th of the KGB.

Under the wing of the 7th control, working for the protection of the diplomatic corps and surveillance, passed the relevant functional departments of the 2nd Chief Directorate. Third main control was reduced to the status of management. The corresponding structural changes have occurred in the KGB of the union and autonomous republics, territories and regions. In 1967, the Office of the Commissioner in the cities and districts were reorganized in the city and district departments and offices of the KGB KGB-OKGB The decline of many structural units, the unit of the Committee of State Security has become more efficient, while the creation in 1967 at the initiative of a new chairman KGB, Yuri Andropov, the fifth control to deal with dissidents made the KGB more prepared to deal with the enemies of the Soviet system in the next two decades. In Wikisource has the full text of the Note by Chief of the 1st Main Directorate of the KGB on the preparations for the invasion of Czechoslovakia, August 21, 1968 Poster demonstrators protest against the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia, mentioned in a memo to the KGB to the Central Committee of the CPSU In the summer of 1962 resources KGB were involved in an operation to suppress the strike by the workers of Novocherkassk Electric Locomotive Plant in Novocherkassk. According to reports, security personnel have not personally participated in the shooting of strikers, but played an active role in the surveillance of "instigators of riots" and their arrests. Activists strikes were identified through photographs taken by staff members, and secret KGB agents and arraigned on charges of banditry, organizing mass disorder and attempting to overthrow the Soviet government. Seven members of speeches were sentenced to death and executed, and the rest received long prison sentences to be served in a penal colony. In 1968, the KGB took part in "Operation Danube" in Czechoslovakia, held in order to change the political leadership of the country and the establishment of Czechoslovakia loyal Soviet regime. The task of the KGB was to assist the Soviet paratroopers and employees of the Czechoslovak secret police in the arrest and removal of a Soviet leaders of the Communist Party and the government of Czechoslovakia. A few days after the operation, August 25, 1968 on Red Square in Moscow, a group of Soviet dissidents was held a protest demonstration against the invasion of Czechoslovakia by Soviet troops and the armed forces of the Warsaw Pact. The demonstrators were arrested by the police and the KGB and prosecuted on charges of "organizing and active participation in group actions violating the order," and in the dissemination of slanderous fabrications discrediting the Soviet social and state system. Most of the demonstrators were sentenced to various terms of imprisonment and exile "in remote areas of the country", and in legal proceedings Gorbanevskaya N. and B. Feinberg were fabricated medical reports on the recognition of a mentally incompetent defendants being sent to compulsory treatment in a special psychiatric hospital. 1970-1980-ies Yuri Andropov, KGB chairman (1967-1982) Jubilee Congress of the 70 years of the Cheka-KGB (1987) Under the leadership of Yuri Andropov as the chairman of the KGB in the period from 1967 to 1982, state security agencies have significantly strengthened and expanded its control over all spheres of public life and society. Increased their political influence in the party nomenclature (Andropov was elected a member of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, then secretary of the Party Central Committee and subsequently took the top party post of General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party), improved the position of the KGB in the system of government - July 5, 1978 the KGB was converted from offices the Council of Ministers of the USSR in the central state administration body with the rights of the USSR State Committee and renamed the Committee of State Security (KGB), which however did not affect the system and the structure of state security.

The fight against dissidents in the Soviet Union A significant effect on the activity of the KGB in the 1970s and 80s provided happening in the country socio-economic processes of the period of "developed socialism" and changes in the foreign policy of the USSR. During this period, the KGB has focused its efforts on the fight against nationalism and anti-Soviet manifestations within the country and abroad. Inside the country, the state security authorities stepped up the fight against dissent and dissident movement, but acts of physical violence, deportations and detentions have become more sophisticated and disguised. Increased use of psychological pressure on dissidents, including surveillance, pressured by public opinion, undermining professional career, preventive conversations, the deportation of the Soviet Union, forced confinement in psychiatric hospitals, political trials, slander, lies and dirt, various provocations and intimidation. Practiced ban on politically unreliable citizens living in the metropolitan cities of the country - the so-called "link for the 101-km". Under the scrutiny of the KGB in this period were, first of all, intellectuals - of literature, art and science - which, by their social status and international reputation could cause harm to the reputation of the most ambitious of the Soviet state and the Communist Party. Indicative of KGB activities in pursuit of the Soviet writer and Nobel Prize winner for literature Solzhenitsyn. In the late 1960s - early 1970s, the KGB was a special unit - the 9th Division of the Fifth Directorate of the KGB - was engaged in extremely quick development of dissident writer. In August 1971, the KGB attempted to physically remove Solzhenitsyn - during a trip to Novocherkassk he had secretly made an injection of unknown toxic substances; writer survived, but after this long and seriously ill. In the summer of 1973 the KGB officers detained one of the assistants of the writer E. Voronianskaya and during interrogation forced her to give out the location of one copy of the manuscript works of Solzhenitsyn's "The Gulag Archipelago". Back home, she hanged herself. Upon learning of the incident, ordered a publication of Solzhenitsyn "Archipelago" in the West. In the Soviet press was deployed a powerful propaganda campaign accusing the writer of defaming the Soviet state and social system. Attempts by the KGB to convince his ex-wife of the writer Solzhenitsyn to abandon the publication of "Archipelago" abroad in exchange for a promise of help in the official publication in the Soviet Union, its novel "Cancer Ward" were not successful and the first volume of the work was published in Paris in December 1973. In January 1974 Solzhenitsyn was arrested, accused of treason, stripped of his Soviet citizenship and expelled from the USSR. The initiator of the deportation of the writer was Andropov, whose opinion was decisive in the choice of the measure "suppression of anti-Soviet activity" Solzhenitsyn at a meeting of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party.

After the expulsion of the writer of the country, and the KGB Andropov personally continued campaign to discredit Solzhenitsyn and, in the words of Andropov, "exposure, active use of the reactionary circles in the West like outcasts in the ideological sabotage against the socialist countries." Sakharov YF Orlov AB Sharansky The object of many years of persecution of the KGB were prominent figures of science. For example, a Soviet physicist, three times Hero of Socialist Labor, dissident and human rights activist and Nobel Peace Prize winner Andrei Sakharov was under the supervision of the KGB since the 1960's, was subjected to searches, numerous insults in the press. In 1980, on charges of anti-Soviet activities Sakharov was arrested without trial and exiled to Gorky, where he spent seven years under house arrest, under the control of the KGB. In 1978, the KGB attempted, on charges of anti-Soviet activities, initiate criminal proceedings against the Soviet philosopher, sociologist and writer A. Zinoviev to send it to compulsory treatment in a psychiatric hospital, but "with the campaign waged by the West about psychiatry USSR ", this preventive measure was deemed to be inappropriate. Alternatively, in a memorandum to the Central Committee had recommended the KGB Zinoviev and his family to travel abroad and close his entry into the Soviet Union. For the control of the Soviet Union Helsinki Accords on human rights, in 1976 a group of Soviet dissidents was formed by the Moscow Helsinki Group (MHG), which became the first head of the Soviet physicist, member of the Academy of Sciences of the Armenian SSR YF Orlov. Since the founding of the Moscow Helsinki Group was subjected to constant harassment and pressure from the KGB and other security organs of the Soviet state. Group members have been threatened and forced to emigrate, forced to stop human rights activities. Since February 1977 activists YF Orlov, A. Ginzburg, A. and M. Landa Sharansky has begun to be arrested. In the case of KGB, Sharansky received the sanction of the Central Committee of the Communist Party for the preparation and publication of a range of promotional items, as well as writing and transfer to U.S. President Jimmy Carter, a personal letter with the denial of the defendant's father-in-fact of marriage Sharansky and "unmasking" of his immoral appearance. Under pressure from the KGB in 1976-1977, were forced to emigrate to the members of the Moscow Helsinki Group A. Alekseev, P. Grigorenko and B. Rubin. In the period from 1976 to 1982, were arrested and sentenced to various terms of imprisonment or exile (in total - 60 years imprisonment and 40 years of exile) eight members, six more forced to emigrate from the Soviet Union, and deprived of citizenship. In autumn 1982, in the face of increasing repression, the three remaining members of the group at large have been forced to announce the termination of the Moscow Helsinki Group. The Moscow Helsinki Group was able to resume operations only in 1989, at the height of Gorbachev's perestroika. The struggle against Zionism Detailed discussion of the topic: Anti-Semitism in the Soviet Union, Chase Zionist activity in the USSR, and the repatriation of Jews from the Soviet Union In the summer of 1970 a group of Soviet refuseniks attempted seizure of a passenger plane to emigrate from the Soviet Union.

KGB forces protesters were arrested and put on trial on charges of treason (trying to escape the illegal crossing of the state border), attempting to steal a large scale (hijacking) and anti-Soviet agitation. Regularly with the permission of the Central Committee of the Communist Party organs of state security, measures were taken to confiscate mail, parcels and financial aid sent from abroad to individuals or organizations who qualified KGB as "hostile." For example, each year the KGB engaged in the confiscation of parcels with matzo sent Jewish communities abroad Soviet Jews for the holiday of Passover. At the initiative of the Propaganda Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and the KGB in 1983 in the Soviet Union was established anti-Zionist committee of the Soviet public, which is under the authority of the secretariat of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the state security organs involved in advocacy and publishing. "The ideological operation" KGB A special place in the arsenal of anti KGB hostile Soviet regime and its ideology carriers engaged in the training and formation of public opinion through the press, cinema, theater, television and radio. In 1978, a special award was established by the KGB in the field of literature and art, which is awarded to writers and actors whose work has implemented the ideological leadership of security plans or covered the activities of the staff committee in accordance with the official point of view of the KGB and the Central Committee of the CPSU. Thanks to this policy appeared films such as Seventeen Moments of Spring, The version of "Omega" Shield and Sword. Cover of the book "The CIA against the Soviet Union", written by order of the KGB According to some researchers, the KGB engaged in the recruitment of individual artists, literature and science in the USSR and abroad to carry out targeted actions, called "ideological operations." Thus, these researchers suggest that in the 1970s, the security organs had been recruited Soviet historian-Americanist, Doctor of Historical Sciences NN Yakovlev. commissioned to write several books KGB - in particular, "1 August 1914" and "CIA against the Soviet Union" - claiming the serious scientific research in the field of history on the basis of material provided by the chief writer of the 5th Directorate of the KGB, General FD Bobkov .

Many of these were materilov fabrication. In millions of copies of published books Yakovlev stated the position of the ideological and penal institutions of the USSR, in a negative light is the U.S. intelligence and the Soviet dissidents who portrayed "renegades", "enemies of the people", "hypocritical, immoral types of acting at the direction of Western intelligence agencies." Thus, the writer Alexander Solzhenitsyn was presented as "a faithful servant of the CIA" and "fascist ideology", a human rights activist VK Bukovsky - "hardened criminal," etc. A similar literature in collaboration with the 5th the KGB produced by authors H . Reshetovskaya, N. Witkiewicz. T.Rzhezach. Cfera of "ideological operation" is not limited to the KGB of the Soviet Union. In the second half of the 1970s, the KGB secret service in conjunction with the Cuban DGI was carried out long-term operation "farts" aimed at discrediting the government of Augusto Pinochet in Chile. During the operation in the Western media (especially in the American newspaper New York Times) published dozens of articles covering negatively prosecution of political opponents and the Pinochet regime to whitewash the situation of human rights in Cuba. The literature used documents provided by the KGB. In India, where the KGB residency was the largest outside the Soviet Union in the 1970s and 80s, the Soviet secret service "fed up" ten newspapers and one news agency. KGB resident in India LV Shebarshin, who later became the head of the First Chief Directorate of the KGB, wrote in his memoirs: "The hand of the CIA and was felt in the publications of some Indian newspapers. We, of course, paid in the same coin. " To support the party of Indira Gandhi and the anti-American propaganda in India Committee had spent more than ten million dollars. In order to convince the Indian government to the intrigues of the United States, the KGB fabricated under the guise of fake CIA documents. According to the records of the Soviet residency in India in 1972, to be published in the Indian press of assets was financed by the KGB about four thousand pleasing to the Soviet state security bodies of articles, and in 1975 this figure rose to five thousand. Developing countries In the face of increasing political, military and ideological confrontation between the superpowers in 1970-80's, the KGB has made active efforts to expand the sphere of influence of the Soviet Union in the "Third World" - in Latin America, Africa, Central and South-East Asia. KGB played a key role in the Afghan war, where they were involved were subordinated to the KGB Border Troops, a division of KGB foreign intelligence and security organs resources for psychological warfare. According to some reports, the head of the KGB Andropov was against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. However, historians find it difficult to establish with certainty the involvement of the KGB leadership to the outbreak of war - it is assumed that on the personal order of Andropov destroyed all the secret KGB documents covering the decision-making process of the overthrow of X. Amin, creating a friendly Soviet Union government led by Babrak Karmal and the beginning of military operations in Afghanistan.

During the war, the KGB advisers trained the Afghan Government Information Service (later transformed into the Ministry of Public Security in Afghanistan), Afghan colleagues to help develop and implement operational activities involved in establishing negotiations between the Afghan government and opposition armed groups, in particular, the field commander Ahmad Shah Massoud. Europe and North America In 1978, the Bulgarian secret services had been killed in London Bulgarian writer and dissident Georgi Markov. The physical removal of a Bulgarian dissident was carried out by injection umbrella, which are tiny granules of ricin - a poison produced in the 12th lab KGB and Bulgarian colleagues provided for the operation. In 1981, together with the GRU, the KGB was launched operation "Ryang" - the largest and most complex in the history of the Soviet operation on intelligence gathering to identify the intentions of the U.S. and its NATO allies to use nuclear weapons against the Soviet Union. Ryang operation was carried out until the end of 1984 and was terminated only with the death of its initiator Yuri Andropov. 1990 Changes in society and system of government of the USSR, a process of perestroika and glasnost led to the need to review the fundamentals and principles of the state security. In 1990, was repealed Article 6 of the Soviet Constitution, which enshrines the leading and guiding role of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in the political system of the USSR. This caused the cells in the central office of the party KGB discussion on "partization" state security. Leadership and the party committee KGB were strongly against the elimination of party organizations in the state security organs, while the heads of some grassroots party cells KGB, in particular, the Secretary of the Party Committee of the First Chief Directorate of the KGB, were in favor partization. End of discussion was laid May 16, 1991 with the adoption of the Law of the USSR "On the State Security of the USSR", the law determined the position of the KGB in the system of government, the legal basis of the security agencies, their powers, rights and duties, as well as set the duty of employees of state security in their service activities guided by the requirements of the laws and their right not to obey the decisions of all political parties and movements, including the Communist Party. Improved relations with the West led to a reassessment of the goals and objectives of the KGB in the international arena, in particular, the rejection of the concepts and terminology of the Cold War and the consideration of the United States as the main enemy of the USSR. VA Kryuchkov, Chairman of the KGB of the USSR (1988-1991) The participation of the Chairman of the KGB Vladimir Kryuchkov in the creation of the Emergency Committee and the failure of the August coup marked the beginning of the largest in the history of the Soviet secret police reorganization.

In August of 1991 from the KGB were derived units of government communications, signals intelligence and cryptography and integrated into Government Communications Committee of the USSR, which was placed directly under the President of the USSR. In September 1991, the office of the KGB of the USSR was transformed into the Office of the President's Office of the USSR. A October 22, 1991 decision of the State Council of the USSR number GS-8, the Committee of State Security, was dismembered by three agencies: Inter-republican Security Service (SME), USSR Central Intelligence Service (CRS) and the Committee on the Protection of the State Border of the USSR. New allied public security authorities were subordinate to the President of the USSR. The official date of the abolition of the State Security Committee of the USSR is December 3, 1991 - the date of signing by the President of the USSR Mikhail Gorbachev, the USSR Law number 124-N "On the reorganization of the state security", under which the elimination of the KGB as an organ of public administration has been legalized. In this case, the central and local safety that were included in the KGB, went to the exclusive jurisdiction of the sovereign republics of the USSR. The legal framework of subordination and The identity of a junior officer of the KGB, which gives the right to keep and bear firearms In Wikisource has the full text of the Regulation on the State Security Committee of the Council of Ministers of the USSR and its local offices Unlike other government USSR State Security Committee was the party-state agency - in its legal status KGB is a government body and, at the same time, was directly subordinate to the higher authorities of the Communist Party - the CPSU Central Committee and its Politburo. The latter was fixed in the position of the KGB, from a legal point of view led to "splice the Communist Party and the state security" and made the KGB "armed force of the Party, physically and politically protected by the rule of the CPSU, which allowed the party to implement effective and tight control over society." Before the adoption of the 1991 Law on the State Security, KGB activities governed by the provisions of the KGB and the decisions of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Soviet Government. In addition to these documents, by the security agencies during their existence was issued more than three thousand subordinate departmental regulations. By early 1991, the total number of acts regulating the activities of the KGB, was more than five thousand documents at various levels. But this body of documents, by a recognition of the KGB, was organically linked with Union legislation, and there was no full compliance and strict subordination to the laws of the union law that guided the State Security Committee and its local bodies. "The situation of the State Security Committee, Council of Ministers of the USSR and its agencies on the ground", which was given the highest level of secrecy was the main document regulating the activities of the KGB.

Draft regulation, the development of which was attended by top leaders of the KGB, was approved by the Presidium of the Central Committee January 9, 1959. After the entry into force of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, the position of the KGB kept the force for over 30 years, virtually unchanged until the adoption in May 1991 of the USSR Law "On the State Security of the USSR." Under this provision, the State Security Committee proclaimed "political authority" to carry out activities of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Soviet Government "to protect the socialist state from attacks by foreign and domestic enemies, as well as for the protection of the state border of the USSR." In this case, the direct management and control of the KGB were the responsibility of the Central Committee of the CPSU, while the Council of Ministers assigned the management role is more modest: hearing reports on the activities of the KGB, the appointment of its vice-chairman, to approve the structure and staffing levels committee, approval of the board members - all in agreement with the Central Committee of the CPSU. "The State Security Committee is working under the direct supervision and control of the Central Committee of the Communist Party." - Regulation of the State Security Committee, Council of Ministers of the USSR In contrast to its central authority, which was ordered to report regularly on their activities to the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Government, national and local public security authorities were not accountable to anyone except the KGB and the relevant party bodies on the ground. In addition, the traditional intelligence functions (in particular, the protection of the state borders, foreign intelligence and counter-intelligence, counter-terrorism and so on.), The Committee of State Security had the right under the supervision of the prosecution to conduct investigations in cases of crimes against the state, but could not sanction Attorney to make searches, detentions and arrests of persons found or suspected activities against the Soviet regime and the Communist Party. Trying to lead the Committee of State Security under the control of the Communist Party and its activities are entirely subordinate organs of state power and control has been undertaken in the last year of the Soviet Union. May 16, 1991, the Law of the USSR "On the State Security of the USSR", according to which the control over the activities of the KGB was carried out by the supreme legislative body of the country's head of state and the Soviet government, while the republican bodies of state security have become accountable to higher authorities government and management of the republics, as well as most of the KGB. "The legal basis for the activities of public safety is the Constitution of the Soviet Union, the Constitution, this Law and other legislative acts of the USSR and the republics of the USSR President acts, regulations, and orders of the Cabinet of Ministers and the governments of the republics, and published in accordance with these acts of the State Security Committee the Soviet Union and the state security republics.

Employees of state security in their service activities are guided by the requirements of the law and not bound by the decisions of political parties and mass social movements that pursue political goals. " - Art. 7, § 16 of the Law of the USSR "On the State Security of the USSR" However, for the security organs were retained police functions - they were allowed to hold an inquest and preliminary investigation of the crimes, the investigation of which was attributed by law to the conduct of state security, and to exercise control without warrants mail and telephone tapping, and to exercise without prosecutor's arrest and detain persons detained by the security services on suspicion of committing a crime. Resolution of the Supreme Soviet on May 16, 1991 № 2160-1 «On introduction of the USSR Law" On the State Security of the USSR "" was also provided for the development and approval prior to January 1, 1992 the new position of the Committee of State Security of the USSR in 1959 to replace the provisions of year. However, the new document was not approved - December 3, 1991 the KGB was abolished. Relations between the KGB and the CPSU Despite the fact that formally the Committee of State Security was vested with the Union-Republican ministries and operates under the auspices of the Council of Ministers of the USSR - first as a department of the Government, and then as the central organ of government - the actual KGB leadership by higher authorities of the Communist Party the Soviet Union in the face of the Secretariat of the Central Committee and the Politburo of the CPSU. Chairman of the KGB office was a member of the Politburo. Since its formation until May 16, 1991 - six months before the abolition - the KGB was actually taken out of the control of the Soviet government. Certain aspects of the KGB - in particular, the subordination of the party, the struggle against dissent, following the release of certain rules of criminal procedure - endowed specialized units hallmarks KGB secret police. Party control Icon 70 years Komsomol KGB The intervention of the Communist Party in the activity of state power and administration was commonplace in the Soviet Union. However, none of the government of the USSR are not subjected to the same degree of interference in the activity of the Communist Party as security, is a tool to protect the interests of the Communist Party. It is significant that the official motto of the KGB of the time, "Loyalty to the party - Loyalty to the Motherland", meant that the ministry is a ministry Party of the Soviet motherland. All employees of the KGB were required from an early age, to be members of the Communist Youth League and the Young Communist League of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

"Security Committee of the Political Bureau of guided not by the party organization, but directly - through the chairman of the KGB, and one or two Vice-Presidents." - Shebarshin, LV Hand of Moscow: Notes chief of Soviet intelligence. - Moscow: Center-100, 1992. Cover and turn the Komsomol in the service of the border troops of the KGB Analysis of the situation of the KGB, party documents and material security organs, conducted by the Commission of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation in 1992, shed light on the degree of control of the KGB of the ruling party. In particular, it was found that in respect of the state security of the Soviet Union, the governing bodies of the Communist Party performs the following functions: determined the status of state security and implement the regulation of their activities; determined the basic tasks of the state security and the specific areas of their work; established the general structure of state security; formulated objectives defined subjects and prescribed methods of dealing with them, based on the current political situation, which caused a "large-scale repressive measures"; claimed an organizational structure and staffing of state security, monitoring structural changes and changes in staffing levels at all levels - from the main offices of the central office to the regional departments of the KGB; approve or endorse the basic internal regulations of state security bodies - orders, decisions of the college, regulations and instructions; formed the leaders of the secret police, in particular, the approval of the KGB chairman and his deputies, as well as the officials of the state security included in the nomenclature of the Central Committee of the Communist Party or the local party officials; determined by the personnel policy of the security; receive reports on the activities of the security services in the whole and its separate structures and activities, and the reporting was compulsory and periodic character (month, year, five years); controlled by specific measures or combination of measures of security and sanctioned the most important of them on a wide range of issues. The Central Committee of the Communist Party had the right to impose a ban on the publication of orders, Chairman of the KGB, which affected the important from the point of view of the party leadership, issues of agent and operational and investigative work, contrary to Articles 10, 12 and 13 of the prosecution authority in the Soviet Union in 1955, which provided for Prosecutorial the conformity of regulations issued by the departments of the Constitution and the laws of the USSR and the Union and autonomous republics, the regulations of the union and national governments. As part of the law enforcement activities of the KGB, the security agencies were forbidden to collect compromising information on members of the party, the Soviet union and nomenclature, which brought out of control law enforcement officials who had the administrative, regulatory and economic powers, and marked the beginning of the birth of their environment organized crime. The functions of the organs of state security were consistently higher security and maintenance of party leaders (including while they are on vacation), security of large party events (congresses, plenary sessions, meetings), ensuring the highest party organ technical means and shifrosvyazyu. To do this, in the structures of the KGB had special units, work and equipment are paid for by the state and not from the party's budget. Under the terms of the KGB, it is also responsible for safeguarding the leaders of the Soviet government. At the same time, the analysis shows the trend of the KGB orders to transfer security and service functions in relation to the proper government agencies in the conduct of the internal affairs bodies, which is evidence that the security and maintenance of party leaders and facilities were a priority for the KGB. In a number of orders for security and maintenance activities are mentioned only the leaders of the party. In particular, the KGB was charged with ensuring the safety and maintenance of the Politburo members, alternate members of the Political Bureau and secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, and in accordance with the decisions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, government and political figures of foreign countries during their stay in the USSR. For example, the KGB is responsible for protection and maintenance of permanently residing in Moscow, B. Karmal after his dismissal in 1986 from the post of general secretary of the Central Committee of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan.

HR integration GA Aliyev, Chairman of the KGB of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic (1967-1969), First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan SSR {1969-1982} Selection of people to work for the safety and education KGB - the so-called "partnabory" among the rank and file Communists, workers of the party apparatus, Young Communist League and the Soviet authorities - were systematically under the careful supervision of the Central Committee of the Communist Party. The most important activities of the KGB strengthened, as a rule, party functionaries - instructor of the Republican Central Committee of the Communist parties, heads and deputy heads of departments of regional committees, secretaries of city and district committees of the party. Party organs at various levels were held constant personnel inspection system and schools KGB, the results of which were fixed solutions of the KGB. But it is not uncommon and has been the opposite - the nomination of KGB personnel to leadership positions in the Party. For example, the former head of the KGB of Azerbaijan GA Aliyev became the first secretary of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan, Latvia, head of the republican KGB Boris Pugo became the leader of the republican Communist Party, let alone the chairman of the KGB Y. Andropov, who became in 1982 the Secretary and then Secretary General of the Central Committee of the Communist Party. Practiced movement of staff from repeated transitions from party work in the KGB and back. For example, in April 1968, officer of the department of the CPSU Central Committee on Relations with the communist and workers' parties of the socialist countries P. Laptev was sent to work for the KGB, where he immediately received the rank of colonel. Heading into the 1971-1979 years, the secretariat KGB Laptev rose to the rank of general. In 1979 he again went to work for the Central Committee of the CPSU, becoming assistant to a member of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of Andropov. From 1982 to 1984 he was assistant secretary and later - the General Secretary of the Communist Party, and in 1984 went back to work for the KGB. In June 1985, Laptev appointed first deputy, and in May of 1991 - Head of the General Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party. Senior members of the state security organs were in the range of the CPSU Central Committee and local Party organs and their functions, and moving from one position to another is by the decision of the party organ. Thus, the candidate of the KGB head first passed approval of the Central Committee of the CPSU, and only then was appointed to the position of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, while the appointment of Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers was carried out of the USSR only after the approval of candidates to the Central Committee of the CPSU.

Was common and overlapping positions in the party and KGB KGB Chairman Andropov, Chebrikov Kryuchkov were at different times of the members of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party. Heads of territorial bodies of the KGB, as a rule, were members or candidate members, the Bureau of relevant regional and territorial committees and the Central Committee of the Communist Parties of the republics. The same was practiced at the level of city and district in which the office is also almost certainly included representatives of state security. In the administrative departments of Party committees operated units that supervise the security bodies. Often these units are staffed with career members of the KGB, who, during their work in the party apparatus continued to be enrolled in the service of the KGB while in the so-called "active reserve". For example, in 1989 the state security sector problems of the State Legal Department of the Central Committee of the CPSU (converted in 1988 from the Department of State Security of the general administration and existed under its new name until August 1991), led by the President of the Azerbaijan KGB Major General II Gorelovsky. Who was at the party work Gorelovsky was nonetheless represented the leadership of the KGB to the next rank of lieutenant general in the summer of 1990. Information interchange For the management of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's state security agencies were the main source of information to monitor the structure of government and the manipulation of public opinion, while executives and employees of the state security seen in the face of the Communist Party, at least until the end of the 1980s, " cornerstone "of the Soviet system and its rail and guiding force. In addition to the so-called "staging" of issues requiring action or consent of the Central Committee of the party in the state security organs was a regular overview information as well as a specific character. Summaries of the operational situation in the country, reports on the status of the border and in the border areas of the Soviet Union, policy briefs, summaries of the international situation, review the foreign press, television and radio broadcasting, public summaries reviews about these or other events or activities of the Communist Party and the Soviet government and other information came to the party organs at different intervals and in different periods of the KGB, in a different range, depending on the current needs of the party apparatus and its leadership.

In addition to the reports, the Central Committee and the local Communist Party authorities received information relating to specific events and people. This information could be a routine designed for information or emergency that requires immediate decision on the part of party leaders. It is significant that the state security organs were sent to the Central Committee of both treated and untreated, surgically extracted illustrative information - censorship of materials, secret recesses of documents, listening rooms and telephone calls, undercover reports. For example, in 1957 from the KGB to the Central Committee received memoranda on Academician Landau, including materials and listening to reports from agents, and in 1987 - recording conversations Academician Sakharov with American scientists D. Stone and F. von Hippel. In this respect, the successor of the KGB was an antecedent practice of security: in the state archives preserved home recording conversations and Rybal'chenko Gordova generals, Stalin directed the Soviet secret service in 1947. At its proyatzhenii the KGB continued to enjoy special information offices established in the first period of the OGPU and whose work continues to regulate the provisions adopted by F. Dzerzhinsky. CPSU constantly monitored information work in the KGB and required accuracy and objectivity sent to party headquarters materials, as evidenced by the numerous decisions of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the orders of the KGB.